The Guggenheim Museums

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Seven

 

The Guggenheim Museums

Both structures serve as museums and house various artwork for people to visit. The Guggenheim Bilbao Museo, Spain and Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York are both unique and futuristic in their design. Despite their similarities in beauty and purpose, there are differences that exist between both sites.

 

The Guggenheim Bilbao was designed by Frank Gehry embraces Deconstrucivist principles. Deconstrucivist architecture is evident in its design. Deconstrucivists architects attempt to disrupt conventional categories or architecture and rupture the viewer’s expectations based on them. Characteristics such as disorder, dissonance, imbalance, asymmetry, irregularity, and unconformity are evident instead of order, harmony, balance, symmetry, regularity and clarity (Kleiner 460). The Guggenheim Bilbao Museo has been designed to present a mass of irregular asymmetrical and imbalanced forms whose profiles change depending on the angle for which it was viewed.

 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, located in New York was on the other hand designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.  Unlike the previously discussed, this museum embodies modernism principles that stressed simplicity, geometry and organic sculptural qualities. It has thick walls and a solid organic shape, while the other one (Bilbao) is more sleek and futuristic in design with a bit more intricacy.  It was built 1943-1949 while Guggenheim Bilbao Museo was established in 1997.

 

Both structures reflect the creativity and ingenious of their architects as well as reflect influence from the various periods in which they were created.

 

Works Cited

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

 

Le Corbusier vs. Miles van der Rohe

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Seven

 

Le Corbusier vs. Miles van der Rohe

Le Corbusier, Miles van der Rohe and Philip Johnson were architects of the modernism time. These post war architects’ buildings reflected simplicity and adherence to rigid geometry and organic sculptural qualities.

 

Le Corbusier designed Notre-Dame-du-Haut, 1950-1955 in Ronchamp, France. This is a chapel that reflects Le Corbusier’s fusion of architecture and sculpture. It has stark, heavy walls and created to create the idea of a sacred cave. It has influences of medieval cathedrals and has a frame of steel and metal mesh sprayed with concrete. Design was influences by sacred symbols to create the atmosphere of worship.

Unlike Notre-Dame-du-Haut, the Seagram Building, designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson has a more futuristic design. It is massive, yet sleek and geometrically rigid. There is structural logic, and clarity. It has a thin design and look unlike the Notre-Dame-du-Haut, which has a chunky, fuller looking structure. It is made predominantly with class, whereas, Notre-Dame-du-Haut is made predominantly of concrete.

 

Both styles reflect the time in which they were done. However, it is evident that inspiration varied. The Notre-Dame-du-Haut has a more ancient feel with its medieval inspired characteristics, while the Seagram Building is a high rise building of glass and bronze strips and has a more futuristic feel and influence.

 

Works Cited

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

 

 

 

Lawrence and Hopper

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Six

 

Lawrence and Hopper

               Jacob Lawrence and Edward Hopper were American painters/artists. Both Lawrence and Hopper painted in the time of the Great Depression and the Second World War. The Great Depression described the period that dramatically changed American nation and economy. It was caused by the US stock market crash of October 1929. This Great Depression was marked by massive job losses, hunger, suicide, discrimination especially against African Americans and women in general; shift in family structure and social life were characteristic of this time as well.  World War II was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

            Jacob Lawrence was an African- American who had firsthand experience living in Harlem, which was the subject of some of his paintings. One of Lawrence’s hallmark pieces, a series entitled The Migration of the Negro 1940-1941 highlight and reflect the struggles particularly those of African Americans.  He responded to the period by creating images of depicting migration, struggles, daily life and oppression among other experiences thematic of African American life during the time. Hopper on the other hand does not narrow in particularly on a group or people but his paintings are thematic of the general mind set during the Depression.  His subject matter is more generalized with overwhelming loneliness and echoing isolation of modern life (Kleiner 412).

            Lawrence creates emotion in his work through his Cubism style and by capturing actual scenes of African American life and experiences. The segregation is distinct in scenes and struggles are evident. His solid colors help give life to the paintings. A sense of bleakness and of degradation of African American life in the north, post migration dominate the images (413). Hopper stops motion in his paintings and suspends time (412). Such is evident in Hopper’s Nighthawks 1942 which is set on the corner of a dark street with only three patrons in a restaurant. According to Kleiner, the surrounding echoing spaces surrounding the people evokes the pervasive loneliness of modern humans (412).

            Both artists existed and worked in a similar period, however, different aspects of the time were portrayed by each. Lawrence addressed discrimination, social disorganization and inequality and Hopper addressed the economy, depression and possible effects of the war and time on communities and human beings.

Works Cited

 

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

Lawrence, Jacob. The Migration Series. The Phillips Collection. electronic . 1 October 2013. <http://www.phillipscollection.org/collection/migration-series/&gt;.

 

 

Post- Impressionism

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Six

Post-Impressionism

Post –Impressionism describes the stylistically heterogeneous work of the group of late 19th –century painters in France who more systematically examined the properties and expressive qualities of line, pattern, form and colour that the Impressionist did (Kleiner, 481). These artists include: Georges Seurat, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, and Paul Cézanne.

Van Gogh’s paintings explore the capabilities of colors and distorted forms to express his motions. Van Gogh’s style is captured in his Night Café 1888 which is charged with energy. He employs the use of a tilted perspective and the thickness, shape and direction of the brushstrokes create a tactile counterpart to the intense color scheme of expressive values.  Starry Night 1889, communicates his feelings rather than realistic representation on the sky. He instead fills it with electrifying vastness of the universe, whirling and exploding stars.

Gauguin also rejects objective representation in favour of subjective expression like van Gogh. In this period he painted works such as Vision after the Sermon which rejected Realism and Impressionism. It shows manipulation of perspective and is imaginative.

Seurat depicted his Impressionist audience in an intellectual way and developed a system of painting focused on color analysis, pointillism.  His work shows how he used space, shapes and motifs to create patterns, as seen in A Sunday on La Grande Jatte 1884-1886, which also shows formal elements in an abstract design in which the cohere in a precise and tightly controlled environment(375).

Cézanne also developed a more analytical style. He explored properties of line, plane, and colour and their interrelationships. He replaced transitory visual effects of changing atmospheric conditions in Mont Sainte-Victoire 1902-1904 with a more concentrated, lengthier analysis of the colors in large lighted spaces (379). He also explored still life arrangement such as his Basket of Apples ca. 1895 from different viewpoints in his zeal to understand three-dimensionality and convey placement of forms relative to the space around them, which made his paintings conceptually coherent but not optically realistic (380).  As his methods allow him to achieve two and three-dimensional images at the same time in Basket of Apples, he achieves a remarkable feat (380).

All artists through their work embody the ideals of the period in their pieces. It is evident in the style, rationality, subject matter, colour, perspective and use of other artistic elements in their pieces.

Works Cited

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

 

 

Neoclassicism and Romanticism

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Five

 

Neoclassicism and Romanticism

Neoclassicism was a period of the late 18th century that was marked by a period of renewed interest in classical antiquity. It was associated with ideas of liberty, civic virtue, morality and sacrifice which made it appealing during the French and American Revolutions (332).  It was eventually displaced by Romanticism (338). Romanticism on the other hand placed emphasis on death, suffering, and human emotion. It emerged from a desire for freedom in politics, thought, and feeling, of action, of worship, of speech, right and property of all (344).

 

Romantic artist such as Francisco Goya rejected Neoclassicism’s ideals of rationality and order in his The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters from Los Caprichos ca. 1798 and instead delves into unrestrained emotions and freedom sans rational thought (345).

Both style were not entirely separate from each other as Neoclassical elements were felt throughout some Romantic pieces. Notably the Raft of the Medusa 1818-1819 by Théodore Géricault. This piece captured the horror, chaos, emotion of the tragedy, and lack of organization while invoking the grandeur and impact of neoclassical history painting (347).

As Romantic artists expressed themselves, the impact of Neoclassicism was evident in a number of pieces even though Romanticism revolved around unrestrained freedom unlike Neoclassicism of which organization was characteristic.

Works Cited

 

Harris, Beth and Steven Zucker. Romanticism. n.d. 23 September 2013. <http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1800-1848-Industrial-Revolution-l.html&gt;.

—. Romanticism in France Delacroix’s Liberty Leading the People. n.d. 23 September 2013. <smarthistory.khanacademy.org/romanticism-in-france.html>.

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

Zygmont, Bryan. Vanderlyn’s Ariadne Asleep on the Island of Naxos. n.d. 23 September 2013. <smarthistory.khanacademy.org/vanderlyn-ariadne-asleep-on-the-island-of-naxos.html>.

 

 

 

 

The Enlightenment

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Five

 

The Enlightenment

            The Enlightenment refers to the period that began toward the middle of the 18th century. This period was marked by a new way of critical thinking about the world and humankind, independently of religion, myth, or tradition (Kleiner, 323). It was a period of profound optimism that was filled with the consequent shedding of old superstitions (Smart History).  According to Kleiner, the enlightenment encouraged and stimulated the habit and application of mind known as the ‘scientific method’ and fostered technological development (323). This was as a result of its thinkers who championed an approach of acquiring knowledge based on empirical observation and scientific experiment (327).

 

The Enlightenment period greatly influenced art. Its ideals and products were profoundly expressed by artists, including those who were merely images of the period or those who were influenced by the principles that governed the period. The Enlightenment is seen in Joseph Wright of Derby’s painting such as A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery ca. 1763-1765, which embodies progress of knowledge, science, and technology. Other pieces included the work of Rousseau who argued that arts, sciences, society and civilization in general had corrupted ‘natural man’ (328). His views influenced turn from Rococo which is evident in Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin’s Saying Grace. Saying Grace 1740 portrays a quiet domestic scene aloof form corrupt society.  The ‘naturalistic’ impulse of the period is manifested in Élisabeth Louise Vigée-Lebrun’s Self-Portrait 1790. The painting is natural simple and in essence the opposite of Rococo. The Enlightenment also redefined ‘nobility’ and extended the concept form aristocratic birth to character. This is shown in Sir Joshua Reynolds’ Lord Heathfield 1787. Art such as The Grand Tour and Veduta Painting which covers depictions of Grand Tour, Italy, which is a natural depiction of a scene just reinforces how the ‘naturalness’ emitted during the period influences art.

 

Enlightenment thinkers condemned Rococo art for being immoral and indecent and strove for new art that was moral, natural and projected the ideals of the period. This was achieved, as a number of artists expressed this in their pieces.

Works Cited

 

1700-1800 Age of Enlightenment. n.d. electronic print. 23 September 2013. <smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1700-1800-Age-of-Enlightenment.html>.

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print

French Rococo

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Four

French Rococo

Versailles was one of Louis XIV’s projects. He converted a royal hunting lodge at Versailles in the south of Paris into a great palace by employing an army of architects, sculptors, decorators, painters and landscape artists. Versailles embodied French ideals about absolute monarchy through its very design that was controlled in great detail by Louis XIV, the self-proclaimed ‘Sun King’. It stood as a defining statement of French Baroque style. Versailles became the greatest architectural project of its age and showed the Sun King’s power and ambition.

 

The design and grandeur of Versailles embodied and professed Louis XIV’s power. The very positioning of his bedroom, its size and in that it served as an official chamber.  Versailles also served as a place where officials met and this was assumed to have been as a measure of control enforced by Louis XIV.

 

The ostentatious furniture and design of the halls and rooms, the landscaping also indicate power and ambition. It was indeed reflected Louis XIV ideals as he sought to wield power and control in all aspects including art.

 

Works Cited

 

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

 

 

 

 

Donatello vs. Michelangelo

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Four

 

Donatello vs. Michelangelo

            David, Biblical character was artistically represented in sculpture by two great artists of their time, Donatello and Michelangelo. Both created sculptures of David that served as symbols of Florentine liberty.

However, Donatello used bronze to fashion his David, while Michelangelo used marble. Both capture David’s success and strength in the subjects as Donatello’s David reinvented classical nude and David stands atop the dismembered head of Goliath. On the other hand, Michelangelo’s David shows David before the encounter with Goliath as he is infused with tension sternly watching his approaching foe. Michelangelo’s David is emotionally and compositionally connected to an unseen presence beyond it and demonstrates pent up emotion and not calm, ideal beauty as Donatello’s. Donatello’s David is relaxed classical contrapposto in its stance.  Donatello’s David portrays humanistic style while Michelangelo employs antique Renaissance style.

 

Despite their differences in presentation and style both are exquisite statues and pieces of art that appropriately convey their subject while standing as physical representation of their creators’ excellence, skill, influence and remarkable talents.

Works Cited

 

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

 

Burgundian, Italian and Flemish

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Three

Burgundian, Italian and Flemish

            Art is always a response to the needs of the moment and for the late 13th and 14th century, symbols of the spiritual remained potent systems for understanding (Harris & Zucker). Art played a vital role in the societies of the Burgundian, Italians and the Flemish. The Burgundians were located in the French duchy of Burgundy, a fertile east-central region renowned for its wines. Burgundy and Flanders (Flemish) ‘merged’ through the marriage of Philip the Bold and the daughter of the count of Flanders. Fifteenth century Flemish painting gave rise to the introduction of oil painting. Flemish painters were the first to use this new medium and was originally used by the likes of Melchior Broederlam and Robert Campin. According to Kleiner (223), Flemish painters built up their pictures by superimposing translucent paint layers over a carefully planned drawing made on a panel prepared with a white ground. Paintings include Mérode Altarpiece and Ghent Altarpiece. Flemish painting had a more natural result that Italian, as a result of the oil paint, that allowed for more realistic representations. Flemish paintings also focused on clarity of detail in their representation of objects ranging in scale from large to almost invisible.

            Italian paintings were mainly frescoes that dried quickly and gave a less natural result than oil paint used by the Flemish. The Italian paintings reflected humanistic ideals. The Italian painter Fabriano was the first to paint the first nighttime Nativity scene with the central light source being the radiant Christ Child (240).

            Despite their differences in presentation and sometimes subject matter, both Flemish and Italian paintings extensively portrayed religious themes and were commissioned and even placed in many religious buildings.

Works Cited

 

Clarke, Michael and Deborah Clarke. 1400-1500 Renaissance in Italy and the North. 2012. Oxford University Press. September 2013. <http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1400-1500-Renaissance-in-Italy-and-the-North.html?q=1400-1500-Renaissance-in-Italy-and-the-North.html&gt;.

Harris, Beth and Steven Zucker. 1300-1400 Proto-Renaissance. n.d. September 2013. <http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1400-1500-Renaissance-in-Italy-and-the-North.html?q=1400-1500-Renaissance-in-Italy-and-the-North.html&gt;.

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

Social and Political Environment of Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Sejae Burey

Debbie Graham

Interdisciplinary Arts HU 2301-Online

Victory University

Week Three

 

Social and Political Environment of Ambrogio Lorenzetti

            Ambrogio Lorenzetti was an Italian painter and student of Duccio. He was a painter of the Sienese school, being active from 1319-1348. Lorenzetti lived and painted at a time when Italian vernacular literature was being developed. There were also changes in intellectual and cultural life at the time. In addition to the many social changes, the political atmosphere was also very influential. The Italian cities faced turbulent politics that saw violent party struggles, overthrowing and reinstating of governments.

            The environment influenced Lorenzetti’s series of frescoes, The Allegory of Good and Bad Government, which were done in Gothic Style in the Sala dei Nove in Palazzo Pubblico of Siena, Italy. The frescoes, promoted morality of government and constantly served to encourage against tyranny, corruption and promote virtuous governing. Allegory of Good Government carries a strong social message of the value of the stable republican government of Siena. Allegory and Effects of Good and Bad Government highlights political creed of government. It depicts effects of good government where prosperity, trade, happiness and agricultural gain prevail. While Allegory of Bad Government is characterized by crime, disease and drought. Bad Government and the Bad Effects of Bad Government on the City Life depict tyranny, and cardinal values are replaced by personifications of avarice, pride and vainglory while vices such as cruelty, treason, fraud and others are evident as well. Effects of Bad Government on Countryside depicts death and destruction.

            Lorenzetti’s themes relate to the current social and political situations. This highlights the depth at which he was influenced by his environment in those respects.

 

Works Cited

 

Art in Tuscany. n.d. September 2013. <http://www.casasantapia.com/art/ambrogiolorenzetti/goodandbadovernment.htm&gt;.

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardener’s Art through the Ages:A Concise Western History third edition. Boston: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.